Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
The appearance of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in 1992 was a milestone in the field of assisted reproduction since it enabled many men with low quality semen was of low quality to become a father thanks to this technique, rather than resorting to a donor.
Nowadays, the development of this technique makes it possible to solve almost any male problem, since no matter how few spermatozoa there are and regardless of their origin (ejaculated, directly from the testicle, epididymes, etc.), they can be used to have children. To perform this technique, the eggs need to be extracted for in vitro fertilisation, and then microinjected with a sperm under a microscope in the laboratory.