This assisted reproduction technique is applied in cases where the cause of the sterility is a low ovarian reserve or an absence of eggs (premature ovarian failure, menopause or absence of ovaries as a result of surgery) or in cases where pregnancy with the eggs of the woman is not recommended basically for genetic reasons.
The main difference from the donation of semen is that, until very recently, oocytes could not be frozen. Consequently, the eggs are donated while fresh, requiring a synchronization of the menstrual cycles of the donor and the patient.
The legal requirements for donating eggs are as follows: To be between 18 and 34 years of age, have good mental and physical health, have a negative serological analysis for HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, etc. and not have a personal or family record of genetic or hereditary diseases.
In Spain the donation is always anonymous, confidential and secret. This means that neither the donor nor the patient can know the other’s identity, nor provide or choose a donor. In addition, as it is a donation, no economic payment is made for the donated eggs, a compensation, however, is given for the trouble taken, travel to the clinic, the stay at the clinic and the time dedicated to the donation.
Once the donor has been accepted, it is the responsibility of the medical staff to ensure that the donor is as phenotypically and immunologically similar to the patient as possible.
In short, the treatment consists of the controlled ovarian stimulation of the donor to obtain the ova while the patient follows a hormone treatment that enables the aforementioned synchronisation and creates the uterine lining to ensure the maximum possibilities of a successful pregnancy.
Once the eggs have been obtained, the couple provides the semen sample on the same day of egg retrieval, and the process continues as described in the section on in vitro fertilisation.